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Transportation Library Covers Wide Field - Dynamic Energy of Professor Worley Brings Growth and Prestige to Collection

This Article by Donal Hamilton Haines is First of Two Descriptions of an Interesting Michigan Development

In 1923 when John S. Worley came to the University of Michigan to become head of the newly-created Department of Transportation and Railway Engineering, he found that there existed at the University no Transportation Library, and no division of the University Library devoted to that subject. Almost from the moment of his arrival he set himself to the building up of such a collection, and the present Transportation Library of between 60,000 and 70,000 pieces is due to the energy of Professor Worley, Professor H. E. Riggs of the Department of Civil Engineering, and William Warner Bishop, '92, Librarian of the University. 

The discovery that no such collection existed at the University of Michigan did not come as a shock to Professor Worley. His entrance into the academic world came after many years of service in his profession. He had built railways in Texas and Arkansas, had been for many years one of the prominent consulting engineers in New York City, a member of the Engineering Board of the Interstate Commerce Commission since 1913, and consulting valuation engineer for the same during 1920-21. During this wide experience in the field of railway engineering, he had found that,  while a few limited and highly-specialized collections of books were to be found in different parts of the country, no real transportation library existed anywhere.

The Baker Library of the Harvard Business School,  for instance, has collected a large amount of material on the subject of transportation, but it is not set aside as a distinct transportation library. The Engineering Library of New York City makes no special division of works on transportation, while the Library of the Bureau of Railway Economics at Washington is very highly specialized.   Similar collections are included in the general libraries at the Universities of Illinois and Wisconsin.

From the outset,  Professor Worley's effort received the most cordial assistance and aid from his associates at the University. Professor Riggs gave books and pamphlets to the collection and began seeking material from others besides providing funds for equipment and space in his department for the housing of the early collection. Mr. Bishop gave the assistance of his advice and encouragement, and his appreciation of the ultimate value of such a collection led him to urge the building up of the library as a separate unit. These three men have become the board of governors of the library, Mr. Bishop serving as Chairman, Professor Riggs as Honorary Curator, and Professor Worley as Curator.  Before describing the fashion in which the work was undertaken, the sources of the material and the present status of the library, it may be well to indicate the vast field of printed matter which must be included in a collection covering completely a subject of such importance and such complexity.

The matter of indicating the divisions into which any specialized library falls is by no means easy, because the division of any collection of books into its logical parts depends upon the angle of view. The most natural and obvious divisions for a library on transportation are transportation by air,  land, and water. Under each of the three main heads a number of subdivisions,  equally logical and obvious,  at once suggest themselves.  Air transportation falls into two parts, by heavier-than-air machines and by lighter-than-air machines. Land transportation includes travel and the carrying of goods by rail and by highways.   Transportation by water is of four different sorts, oceanic, Great Lakes, rivers, and canals, and the latter includes two different groups, in-land and inter-oceanic.

Fifty years ago or such a matter, the main lines of cleavage indicated above might have been sufficient on the purely physical side: today they are not. Tele-graph, telephone, and cable lines—and now radio as well—must be given a place as must the pipe-lines for the carrying of gas and oil.

This system of division, as already indicated, is of a purely elemental, physical sort. Another must be made along entirely different lines of classification, according to the historical, technical, economical, and legal aspects of the subject. It will be at once apparent to what an immense extent the consideration of these phases increases the size of anything like an adequate collection of literature on the subject.

Still another angle of approach necessitates the division of material according to works dealing with construction or operation, and the latter term must be further split in "actual operation" and "maintenance." Like many generalities, these brief indications of the complexity of the subject-matter which is being slowly accumulated in the Transportation Library mean little until they are pointed with specific instances: supply a few of these and it is at once apparent why no adequate library existed before the effort at the University of Michigan was begun and what an almost infinite range of subjects must be regarded as "grist for the mill."  An advertisement for laborers on the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal, published in the third decade of the last century, an engineer's drawing of one of the earlier wood-burning locomotives,  the latest scientific article dealing with concrete for use in highways, back files of long-dead magazines treating of coach-making, annual reports of little known railways, every scrap of information touching any court decisions affecting any phase of transportation, and a fat,  mildewed volume bearing the imprint of a Dutch printer and a date in the seventeenth or eighteenth century, de-scribing, with illustrations, some amazing "horseless vehicle"—all these seemingly disconnected bits are of equal value to the collector of literature whose goal is the complete covering of his subject.

It might appear to the outsider that much of the material indicated is of questionable value, and that such a piece as a right-of-way report for a small road perhaps no longer in existence deserves no better fate than to be a part of the bale of wastepaper from which,  as often as not, it was rescued. The answers of the transportation experts are succinct and convincing:  they argue that such material is of value for

(1) Work in transportation courses at the University in which students are expected to do original research work, which is impossible without a wealth of historical source-material.

(2) The wealth of really valuable literature on the subject, much of it going back to the period between 1775 and 1850, and a large amount of it doomed to destruction unless a constant effort toward its discovery and preservation is made.

(3) The value of the library as the treasure-house of the literature of a great industry and an encouragement to such research as has already resulted in the production of such works as Phillips' "History of the Railroads of the Southern Cotton Belt" and Bronson's "History of the Illinois Central."

At the present time the collection at the University present time the collection at the University of Michigan consists of between 60,000 and 70.000items. Included among these are—

1 Text and Reference Books. This includes works dealing with history, regulation, rates, etc. The file of modern works is already fairly complete along some lines, but quite the reverse in others.

2 Documents. A majority of these are government reports,  especially those dealing with early explorations and surveys. Many of these have been very hard to secure and are highly valuable in consequence.

3 Manuals. This section includes such works of reference as Poore, Moody's Street Railway Red Book, etc., many earlier works, such as the "Journal of the Arts and Sciences" which goes back to 1750, covering much of the early period of invention.

4 Periodicals. Technical journals, such as the "Railway-Age." Included among the more valuable are the complete files of "Railway Journal" beginning with January, 1832, and the only complete file of the "Railway Chronicle," published in the early 40's.

5 Society Proceedings. These include not only the reports of such general organizations as the "American Railway Association" but of more specialized societies such as the "Association of Master Mechanics," etc.

6 Reports. These include the reports of the Interstate Commerce Commission, all of the State and Canadian Railway and Utility Commissions, etc. Among them are included some priceless early reports, such as those of the "Virginia Board of Public Works" which date back to1800.

7 Special Reports. Engineering reports on specific problems. Much of the most valuable material in the entire collection is contained in these papers.

8 Laws and Charters. Regulation decisions, etc., as well as State and National laws, special charters, etc.

9 Correspondence and Personal Papers. Included among these are the papers of Judge Thomas M. Cooley, first Chairman of the Interstate Commerce Commission, some 35 volumes of the correspondence and instructions of Judge C. A. Prouty, director of the Federal Valuation Board. These two, selected from a long list, indicate the unique value of this division.

10 Prints and Pictures. Included among these is a mass of very interesting early advertising material.

11 Annual Reports of Companies. The collection now contains over 5000 annual reports of different companies, many of them going back to the earliest days of the industry.

12 Maps and Atlases. The collection thus far attempts simply to cover the entire country for each decade.

13 Lantern Slides. The collection at present numbers about 500, all of them gifts, designed to illustrate lectures on the history of transportation.

In jumping from the statement of the great need which provided the original impetus for the library to this brief listing of its present scope, perhaps the most interesting period in the library's history has been hurdled—that of its growth from very small beginnings.   And anyone who imagines that the early days of a library are free from the elements of romance and ad-venture which go to make stirring the beginnings of other institutions is sadly at fault.

When the work of collecting the material was commenced in 1923, there were two initial difficulties of a discouraging sort. The first was that the books, pamphlets, reports and so on were by no means easy to obtain; the second was that there was little or no money with which to obtain them. The Department of Transportation was young and without the funds necessary for the adequate carrying out of such a campaign; the University itself was in the midst of a period of great physical expansion when there was no surplus available for such purposes. Had it been necessary to go into the open market and attempt to purchase the desired materials at prices approximating their real value to the library, the task would have been one of almost insurmountable difficulty at the outset.

Happily, Professor Worley's familiarity with the field in which the search had to be carried on, plus a close acquaintance with railway officials an engineers, government officials, automobile manufacturers and a collector's familiarity with second-hand bookstores in many parts of the country, gave him the valuable knowledge that many of the books he sought could be purchased for comparatively little—if they could be found at all—and that much of the other material would be given to the library as soon as those who had it in their possession learned that there was a real demand for it.  This did not mean that the task was any easier, but it did mean that it could be prosecuted without a bottom less purse.

In the years, which have followed, Professor Worley and his assistants have run their blue pencils down literal miles of the columns of second-hand book catalogues. This was slow work, and a great deal of it was in a way futile work, but it was adventurous work, because one thick price-list, otherwise utterly barren,  might turn up a veritable treasure in the way of an old treatise—obtainable for a mere fraction of its value—to future, generations of students as well as to the eager collectors. Bales and boxes of such old catalogues have passed through the offices of the Transportation Department (from the late Ernest Cooley, a brother of Mortimer E. Cooley. recently retired Dean of the Colleges of Engineering and Architecture of the University, between 300 and 500 pounds of these old catalogues were obtained) and every one of them has been patiently searched, page by page and item by item, be-fore being discarded. It is interesting to note, by the way, that the majority of purchases made have been from catalogues and lists from twelve to fourteen years old.

Financial and other aid from the outside was soon extended. From the Detroit Edison Company. General Motors, Dodge Brothers, Hudson Motor, Reo Motor and Ford Motor Company grants of several thousand dollars each were received, and contributions of books,  pamphlets, etc., came from three private collections from the Pennsylvania Railroad and from two alumni of the University, together with a hundred or more smaller gifts of from two to fifty volumes.

These figures indicate a growth since the initiation of the effort which is highly satisfactory, and which promises the ultimate reaching of the goal. But the latter is still distant, and can be reached only through more extensive purchases and further contributions of book-and other material from individuals. Some financial assistance has been extended to the library by the University authorities, but the funds are not by any means adequate for all the purchases in view, particularly the wealth of European material which as yet has hardly been touched.

In the matter of the contributions from individuals, the situation is peculiar. It has been found by the collectors that private libraries are almost invariably broken up upon the death of the men who have collected them. When such collections happen to be of a highly technical nature, as is true of much of the material in which the Transportation Library is interested, the collection is not only broken up but much of it is irretriveably lost. Some of the books may be saved, but the pamphlets, reports and private correspondence are all too apt to fall into the hands of the buyers of old paper.

How frequently this happens, what an irreparable loss results, and how easily such losses may be prevented may perhaps be gathered from a more detailed examination of some of the real treasures in the Library and the tale of how they were saved from oblivion.

The Michigan Alumnus

July 13, 1929, Page 726

Transportation Library Almost Museum

By Donal Hamilton Haines, '09

To the visiting alumnus—until such time as he begins to understand its full significance — the Transportation Library will probably appear a smaller and more highly specialized form of museum, full of diverting, old-fashioned pictures of antiquated locomotives and railway coaches, queer bridges over which it seems un-likely that any wheeled traffic ever passed, and advertisements in type, long since vanished from everyday use. describing events and conditions just as remote from present day notions of transportation.

But even while he regards it as no more than a repository of odd bits connected with the early and more recent science of moving people and things from place to place, he will find plenty to repay a lengthy visit, and if, during his loitering among its shelves, he is so fortunate as to encounter Professor Worley and to display an intelligent interest, drawers will be opened, locked doors flung wide and he will be shown many treasures which do not meet the eye of the casual visitor.

The opportunities for inspecting the library are far better today than they were a few years ago. During its first five years on the Campus, it led a strictly "unofficial" existence, and had to put up with the handicaps and inconveniences, which go with that state. Now it is adequately, if not commodiously, housed in the north-west corner of the East (new) Engineering Building,  opening off the main corridor on the main floor of that building. There has been provided shelf-room which gives space for a good deal of the present accumulation of books, pamphlets and so on, although this space is by no means sufficient to take care of the growth which it is hoped will take place in the collection during the next few years.

Thanks to its location, immediately adjoining the main corridor of the building, however, and to the highly decorative as well as historically interesting nature of many of the maps and pictures, which have been gathered, it has been possible to let some of this latter material overflow into the corridor.

Perhaps one of the first objects to catch the eye of the visitor is what appears to be a roughly – hewn chunk of weathered wood conspicuously displayed in one of the glass cases along the wall of the corridor. It appears so unassuming a "specimen" that the visitor is likely to peer more closely at the explanatory card pinned to its dingy surface, if only on the assumption that anything which looks so dull and uninteresting must have a history back of it to warrant its presence in such a place. The inference is justified, for the chunk of wood—which on closer inspection proves to have a strip of rusty iron on top of it—is nothing less than a piece of the original Michigan Central railroad, probably laid in 1839, exactly ninety years ago!

The fragment was found in the spring of last year by A. R. Bailey, county highway engineer, during the building of the new Huron River Drive, a road which now parallels the course of the Huron from a point on the Whitmore Lake Road just south of the bridge over the river and the Michigan Central tracks to the village of Dexter, passing all those points along the stream between Ann Arbor and the little up-river village which have been familiar to undergraduate canoeists for years.

Most former students will remember that along the west bank of the river between the Whitmore Lake bridge and the water-works there was a wooded path following the curve of the banks, much frequented by strolling students in the spring, and in an earlier and unregenerate day (alas!) the scene of numerous "keg-parties." There was about this path an air of having been built years ago and then, through misuse, allowed to become grass-grown. This was precisely the case, for the path ran along the top of what had been the original road-bed of the Michigan Central railroad, the line then following the sweep of the stream instead of taking the short-cut across the low land which it now follows.

When the work of making the new drive under Mr. Bailey's direction was begun, as the natural beauty of the road was to be preserved wherever possible, it was decided not merely to follow the line of the old railroad but to use the grass grown embankment as the base of the drive. To avoid too great destruction of the shrubbery along the sides of the road, the old embankment was flattened and the ballast for the new highway lay on top. In the course of these operations there was naturally a good deal of excavation, and Mr. Bailey,  who knew the possibilities, kept an open eye and instructed his workmen to do the same thing.

And yet the find, when it actually came, was almost accidental. Mr. Bailey had driven out one evening to inspect the progress of the work, and saw a queer looking billet of wood with a strip of metal attached to it sticking up in the loose dirt at the edge of the shrubbery along the road. Guessing what it might be, he left his car for a closer inspection and returned in triumph bearing the trophy with him.

The rail looks like a piece of thoroughly weathered "four-by-four" on which has been fastened a strip of strap-iron about half an inch in thickness and a little over an inch in width, running the whole length of the wood. This was the method of construction in the days of tiny, wood-burning locomotives and diminutive railway coaches not as large as a fair sized motor truck of the present day. The rails proper were simply long ribbons of the strap-iron set on the wooden runways.   There were no "ties" in the present sense of the word,  although of course there were cross-members at intervals for keeping the rails in place.

Laid alongside a section of modern "ninety-pound" rail, this relic looks so flimsy by comparison that it is hard to believe that even the lighter rolling stock of the last century could have run over it without reducing it to ruins in short order. Mr. Bailey is authority, however, for the statement that sturdy enough stuff went into the old rails. One end of the prize needed trimming when it was found, and he undertook the work with an ordinary saw, only to find that the stout oak which was set in place a hundred years ago was just as sound as far as resistance to the saw-teeth was concerned as when it was laid.

The exhibit is not quite complete, and the library authorities are now engaged in a search for a "find" of the old spikes and "plates," said to have been made by one of the laborers employed on the new road.

Another fragment of a somewhat different sort is not merely a further evidence of conditions in the world of transportation a hundred years ago (and a decidedly startling one into the bargain) but an answer to those scoffers who insist that highly specialized collections of any sort end by being accumulations of material of interest only to a very limited circle of cognoscenti and not to the general public. For Professor Worley unearthed from the musty pages of an old book in the library, evidence that one "B. G. N." said to be a native of Dexter, had actually drawn up in the year 1834 plans and working drawings of steam-driven airship. The significant fact is not so much that the story (of which more details presently) was found, but that had not such a collection existed as a focal point of interest, there would have been no organized curiosity to bring it to light! 

The item was found in the pages of a bound volume of "The American Railway Journal and Advocate of Internal Improvements" for 1834. The drawings and plans of the airship were submitted to the editor of the magazine and published by him in the August issue of that year. "B. G. N." proved upon investigation to have been B. G. Noble, a resident of Dexter. In his letter to the editor the inventor said:

"Herewith I send you a proposal for an Aeronautic Steam Car, which, if you deem worthy of your attention, you may record in your Register of Inventions and Improvements. Of the expediency of the project your readers and yourselves must be the judges. For my own part, I should not have thrust it upon your attention had I the slightest thought of its inexpediency. I am of the opinion that, if properly constructed, it will succeed beyond a doubt in calm weather. Of the effect that would be produced should Aeolus unpack his chariot during one of its aerial flights, I am unable to speak: but I presume the tempest tossed voyager would be able to conduct his frail bark with as much skill certainly as our modern aeronauts, who are limited in their operations to a discharge of gas and ballast. The plan herein proposed occurred to me some years since, but I have not availed myself of the advantages that arise from actual experiment because of the expense which must necessarily be incurred in the construction of such a machine."

After a somewhat detailed description of the working parts of the apparatus (which the reader may gather for himself by a study of the accompanying sketch) the inventor continues:

"In conclusion, Mr. Editor, I would beg you to overlook the many errors that must occur in this article. 'I am no orator as Brutus is, and am equally unskilled in chaining winged thoughts to the parchment.' In some future time I propose to furnish you with drawings of a newly-invented Portable Horse-Power, which I possess.   I have other objects in view besides a desire to contribute to the advancement of mechanic arts. I consider that yours is indeed a 'Register of inventions and Improvements and, therefore, a person unable to avail himself of the usual protection of patent may in a great measure secure to himself the credit, at least, of his invention by publication. The world may then judge of the originality of a project, and a fair copy be present for the accommodation of those who would avail themselves of the advantages of reinvention.

"Respectfully yours,


Dexter. Mich, Ter., August, 1834."

Subsequent investigation has revealed neither any evidence that one of Mr. Noble's airships was ever constructed and tested, or that his Portable Horse-Power and the other ideas he mentions ever came to anything.  But that this citizen of Dexter may have been one of the many luckless inventors whose wings were clipped by the lack of funds to prove the soundness of his ideas is more than suggested by Professor Worley's opinion that the Aeronautic Steam Car might very easily, with a few modifications, prove an entirely practicable aircraft. Had someone with a few thousand dollars and a zeal for progress come to the assistance of B. G. N. ninety-five years ago, the whole history of aviation might have been considerably changed.

These two examples are given at some length because each possesses a somewhat unexpected angle of purely local interest; but as far as their historical value,  compared to innumerable other items in the collection,  they are of trifling importance. But to plunge into an account of some of the other materials is to begin a catalogue which is limited only by the dimensions of the collection itself.

Two recent additions to the collection will serve to illustrate at once the extraordinary resemblance between some features of the history of transportation in periods many years apart and the fashion in which materials come to the collection from widely separated points.

A few weeks ago, during a trip to New York City,  Professor Worley picked up an English roadmap of the seventeenth century, probably the earliest map of the sort which has been preserved. It is an accurate representation of the highway between Kendal and Cocker-mouth, and, thanks to the English practice of leaving well enough alone, the map would serve the visiting motorist of 1929 just as well over this particular bit of highway as it did the carter of three centuries ago!

Only a few weeks after this valuable piece was secured, Professor Worley was given by the public library of Cold water, Michigan, the original survey map of the highway between Detroit and Chicago, drawn up in1825, and following almost exactly the course of the present paved highway, "U. S. 112," which is the main artery of motor traffic between these two cities. So old is the map that there appears on it at its western terminus a tiny collection of dots and squares, hardly larger than those appearing elsewhere on the road indicating villages which have remained villages or completely disappeared—and this collection of dots and squares is labeled "the village of Chicago!"

The map is drawn on a long roll of ordinary drawing paper, and, when unrolled, stretched almost across the floor of the main room of the library. Professor Worley exhibited his latest treasure to several visitors, but announced definitely at the end of the exhibition that he would not risk unrolling the map again, as the paper has become exceedingly fragile, and that it will go at once to the Printing and Binding Department of the University for proper preservation before it is returned to an honored place in the library.

It is entirely possible that m any alumni of the University will never find occasion to visit the Transportation Library,  but it is out of the question that any of them should remain unconscious of the value of the collection, or the tourist of the present day of the service which graduates of the University can render to the institution in doing anything in their power for one of the latest additions to the treasure-houses of the Campus. For, just as transportation ranks second only to agriculture in the list of the nation's industries, so do the history and records of American transportation contain for the student of Americana an enormous amount of peculiarly significant material which is to be found nowhere else.

Prof. Worley, Prof. Riggs and Mr. Bishop hope the Transportation Library may become the outstanding collection of its kind in the country. In the course of the past seven years they have gone far toward their goal. Their further progress depends almost as much upon the assistance of others as it does upon their own unflagging interest and activity. Many graduates are in positions that enable them to furnish books and other valuable material to the library (many have already done so) and others may be able to furnish the library authorities with information as to the present location of really priceless material, which may otherwise be lost.

The Michigan Alumnus

July 13, 1929, Page 764

History of the Transportation Library